Stem cells make us, maintain us, and heal us. About 5 days after fertilization of the egg, totipotent stem cells, which are embryonic stem cells that can form any cell in the body, begin to partially differentiate. The differentiated stem cells no longer are able to transform into any cell in the body, instead they are beginning to acquire characteristics to support particular tissues. At this time, adult stem cell types are beginning to form, and many phenotypes possessing particular functions will arise and spatially segregate to develop, maintain, and heal the various cells and tissues of our body. This means, for example, that particular adult stem cell types will be resident in the skin, while other types will reside in the hair follicle. As an integrated system, the different stem cell types in the skin and follicle work together to maintain and heal the skin throughout our lives. Surprisingly, in the 1990s my lab at UCSD, and other labs, showed that much of the ability of adult stem cells to maintain and heal tissues was not because of their differentiation into mature cell types, rather was because of the release of many molecules from the stem cells. Further, different sets of molecules are released from multiple stem cell types in any given tissue, and are naturally packaged into a “smart liposome” called the exosome, which has highly evolved protection, targeting, and delivery characteristics for the molecules. Chronological aging, and many environmental factors during the aging process, lead to diminished stem cell function throughout our bodies. As a consequence, the quantity and quality of the stem cell released molecules (SRM) that nourish the hair and skin are diminished, leading to disruption of homeostasis and a chronic para-inflammatory state. This is the unhealthy state of the skin and hair where the skin forms wrinkles, sags, and loses elasticity, and when the follicle miniaturizes and hair begins to thin and gray. Homeostatic renormalization of this disrupted, para-inflammatory state can be achieved by returning the normal SRM (quantity and quality of the molecules) to the aged skin and scalp. The homeostatic renormalization process as a platform technology is being developed to treat a number of conditions, including age related macular degeneration. If we specifically consider aged and damaged hair and skin tissue, the S2RM molecules, which are derived from two or more normal stem cell type’s resident in the skin, are able to restore the skin and hair, through simple topical application, to a homeostatic renormalized state that is characteristic of younger, healthier skin and hair. The collection of molecules, as opposed to a single molecule traditionally used in therapeutic development, is called a “systems therapeutic.” The systems therapeutic induces emergent, collective efficacy that is vastly greater than that of using one or a few molecules, and when developed using endogenous human molecules and exosomes, produces a superior therapeutic with optimal safety and efficacy profiles.
This presentation will review the science of this new technology and what exactly are the various types of stem cells, discuss the source of the stem cells, compare human and embryonic stem cells and the more recent plant-based stem cells, update the regulatory landscape and the California Stem Cell initiative and its progress.
Dr. Greg Maguire, Ph.D. is a former professor of neuroscience and ophthalmology at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine. His graduate training was at the University of California, Berkeley, University of Houston, University of Texas, The Marine Biological Labs, Woods Hole, MA, and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, NY. He was visiting associate professor of physiology at Keio University School of Medicine in Tokyo, Japan, visiting assistant professor of molecular neurobiology at the University of Washington, and a visiting scientist at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), at Harvard University. Awarded a prestigious Fulbright-Fogarty Fellowship from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Dr. Maguire managed his NIH and NSF funded laboratory at UCSD for the study of tissue degeneration and regeneration, and the role of stem cell released molecules(SRM) through paracrine and autocrine actions to maintain, repair, and regenerate human tissues. His NIH funded studies of systems biology and reverse engineering at the University of California, Berkeley and stem cell biology at UC San Diego led to the development of adult stem cell-based S2RM® technology for the development of therapeutics and medical procedures. Dr. Maguire has over 100 publications and is author his forthcoming book entitled, “Spontaneous Stem Cell Healing.” He is president of the California Physiological Society, and is founder and CEO of BioRegenerative Sciences, Inc. His current work, in collaboration with the Center for Stem Cell Biology and Engineering at UC Santa Barbara, focuses on using the S2RM technology to treat eye and skin diseases.
Selected Recent Publications:
1. Maguire, G. (2016) The Coherent Nature of Biology: Post-Genomics As A Theory Of Principle. I. In Preparation.
2. Maguire, G. (2016) Blood “Youth Factors” Are Really “Maturation Factors.” Submitted for Publication.
3. Maguire, G. (2016) Exosomes: Naturally Produced Smart Nanospheres For Drug Delivery Using Stem Cells. Book Chapter in Volume IX: NanoBioMaterials in Drug Delivery, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
4. Maguire, G. and Friedman, P. (2015) Systems biology approach to developing S2RM-based “systems therapeutics” and NiPSs. World Journal of Stem Cells. May 26;7(4):745-56. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v7.i4.745.
5. Maguire, G. (2014) Systems Biology Approach To Developing "Systems Therapeutics" Am. Chem. Soc. Medicinal Chemistry Letters. DOI: 10.1021/ml5000614
6. Maguire, G (2014) Maturing from embryonic to adult policy on stem cell therapeutics. Am. Chem. Soc. Med Chem Lett. 2014 Oct 8;5(12):1264-5. doi: 10.1021/ml500396z. eCollection 2014 Dec 11.
7. Maguire, G. (2013) Stem cell therapy without the cells. Commun Integr Biol. 2013 Nov 1;6(6):e26631. doi: 10.4161/cib.26631.
8. Maguire G. (2013) Using a systems-based approach to overcome reductionist strategies in the development of diagnostics. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2013 Nov;13(8):895-905. doi: 10.1586/14737159.2013.846828.
9. Maguire, G. and Friedman, P. (2013) The Systems Biology of Stem Cell Released Molecules—Based Therapeutics. ISRN Stem Cells. dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/784541.
10. Greg Maguire, Peter Friedman, Debra McCarthy, Rita Friedman, Andrew Maniotis (2013) Stem Cell Released Molecules and Exosomes in Tissue Engineering. Procedia Engineering Volume 59, Pages 270–278.
11. Greg Maguire, Peter Friedman (2013) Enhancing spontaneous stem cell healing. Biomed. Reports, DOI: 10.3892/br.2014.231.